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Most turbidity monitors are based on the nephelometric method, which measures the amount of light scattered at right angles to an incident light beam by particles present in a sample. Quantification of impurities such as HCP and DNA may also provide value insight to the level of purification achieved during clarification process development. The increase in main water quality parameters as a result of the dissolution of 1 mol of each of the chemicals applied via “direct dosage” methods. Therefore, CO2 is dissolved into the water following the addition of hydrated lime. Particle size and particle distribution (if required) can be measured using a Coulter counter or laser particle size analyzer. A heterotrophic plate count (HPC) concentration of less than 500 colonies per milliliter can serve as a detectable residual if no residual is measured. by Thomas Aiello January 07, 2021. The polymer can be added at reasonably low concentrations (i.e., < 0.1% w/w) and one test resulted in an 8 × increase in clarification filter throughput (to > 700 L/m2) as well as 50%–70% reduced HCP levels in post-Protein A affinity chromatography target pools. 11.5. Filtrate turbidities of 1–3 NTU and a 1.2–2.0 fold decrease in HCP with significant (> 5 log) DNA clearance. 11.5 also shows low-pH treatment control results, which are in keeping with Westoby et al. NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore (NTU CCA Singapore) is a national research centre for contemporary art of Nanyang Technological University. The polymers, which can interact with cells and cell debris electrostatically via their amine groups, also interact with HCPs and nucleic acids via mixed-mode (hydrophobic, aromatic, and electrostatic) based interactions. Find out more here. Turbidity is often measured during clarification both as a process control and process development tool. In commercial membranes, a discontinuous skin layer through which microorganism can pass takes place. Typical direct dosage treatments combine the addition of TH and alkalinity to the water. We have four stunning campuses at NTU - City, Clifton, Brackenhurst and Confetti - each unique in their own way and all equally inspiring. In addition, the approach may raise water turbidity to values higher than 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) [1,7,13,65,69]. A number of methods have been leveraged in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to cover a broad range of particle sizes [13,35,36]. CT is the product of the concentration of disinfectant remaining at the end of a treatment process (“C” in milligrams per liter) and the contact time in which 10% of the water passes through the treatment process (“T” or “T10” in minutes). HMW and dimeric mAb levels did not increase [3]. In the USA, US EPA regulations require the use of lamps with a colour temperature between 2200 and 3000 K and a detector with a spectral response peak between 400 and 600 nm, the primary wavelengths of natural ‘white light’. A further 50 L scale up yielded only 90% of product (as the recovery method was not optimized), but indicated a 10% reduction in HMW contaminants. Product quality did not appear to be affected [65]. This represents another significant addition to our growing list of major accolades. The obtained retention for all types of microorganisms was greater than 4 log, i.e., 99.99%. Generally such reagents will be cationic, polycationic, mixed-mode polycationic, and may be responsive polymers which become more hydrophobic and self-associating in response to increases in temperature, conductivity, divalent ion concentration, etc. Typically, tungsten lamps are used to meet the US EPA requirements. Using Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 as the CT source instead of CO2 (as in the previous alternative) results in an elevated pH value, since these salts consist of the basic species of the carbonate system. In spite of its known drawbacks, this method is widely applied [68,69]. Whereas a typical annual replacement rate for RO membranes operated with a conventional pretreatment system is 15–20%, it is reduced to 10–15% when MF/UF pretreatment technology is used. This is mainly connected to imperfections in membranes and membrane modules and the secondary growth of bacteria in water after its passage through a membrane. They are relatively inexpensive (similar in cost to PEG) and available in a variety of Tc′s covering temperatures of bioprocess interest, (i.e., 4–40°C). Fig. In some cases > 50 mM of a kosmotropic salt such as phosphate or citrate may need to be added to the solution to enhance performance. The SWTR and the Interim ESWTR includes the following general requirements in order to minimize human exposure to microbial contaminants in drinking water. Accordingly, these alternatives can be considered only for elevating the carbonate alkalinity and the pH value of acidic water, rather than as PT methods for desalinated water. NTU says that it is the largest and oldest grassroots taxpayer organization in the nation, with 362,000 members nationwide. Thus, at least theoretically the elimination of microorganisms is possible. Appearance of a cell-dense phase 18 min after adding 10% (w/w) Breox to a 10 L fermentation (2.4 × 107 cells/mL and 5 g/L mAb) in a 20 L Wave bioreactor at 40°C. Consequently, turbidity monitoring has limited sensitivity for detection membrane breaches. Polish regulations regarding the quality of drinking water establish the maximum permissible content of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, and, as additional requirements, the amount of Coli bacteria group, the total number of microorganisms, and the amount of Clostridium perfringens (Bodzek & Konieczny, 2005). Power of the Purse Coalition Applauds Passage of Taxpayers Right-To-Know Act. Figure 15.10. The national kickboxing championship. For example, brines used for open hole gravel packing and frac-packs normally require very low limits, with some operating companies setting targets as low as 5NTU. Turbidity and NOM removal using membrane techniques. 1) Launch MS Outlook 2) Add a new account 3) Select "Microsoft Exchange Server" (Screen 1) (Screen 1) 4) Enter "MAIL24.student.main.ntu.edu.sg" as the Exchange Server" (Screen 2) 5) ALL NTU Student start with a "#" in front of the name. The SWTR provides tables which identify the log removal of both Giardia lamblia and viruses achieved for a calculated CT value based on the type of disinfectant, the water temperature, and pH. Copyright MerckMillipore, used by permission. Eventually the particles themselves begin to block the transmission of the scattered light, resulting in a decrease in its intensity. Tampa Seawater Desalination Plant (Left-hand side, lime feed system shown in upper left corner); right-hand side: schematic of the CO2 and lime direct dosage process. C PS-14-09928 08/2014, © 2014 EMD Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA USA. A comparison of the pore sizes of UF and MF membranes with the size of microorganisms indicates that the UF process can be successfully used for water disinfection (Bodzek & Konieczny, 2005). The research will involve a substantial level of international collaboration with leading academic institutions. This bilingual programme is a collaboration between NTU and Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (BUCM) which started in the year 2005. The polymers tend to be “responsive” to divalent anions such as phosphates. Although the particle size, shape, color, and reflectivity can impact the measurement, it provides a rapid and easy metric for comparison of clarification performance. Chlorination causes the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and is ineffective in the case of microorganisms associated with suspension. However, as a function of the required product water quality, in some cases only alkalinity is supplied (as demonstrated in Section We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Friday 8.30 am – 4.30 pm, Nottingham Trent University You will be committed to working with industry and the professional bodies to ensure our students remain highly employable throughout their careers. Working closely with the Executive Dean, Deputy Dean and School Associate Dean for Research, you will also contribute to the strategic leadership of the School, particularly in relation to the School’s international and research agendas. Although the capital cost of membrane pretreatment still exceeds that of conventional processes by about 10% (for instance, membranes are about twice as expensive as dual media filters), this is compensated for by the reduction of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs in subsequent RO trains. They are available in a variety of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios and as block copolymer and copolymer formats, and some are produced to be compatible with food processing. January 07, 2021. The recipient will receive a secure QR code either via email or the notification app. NTU, National Yang Ming University and Academia Sinica, with funding from MOST, have joined forces with Taiwan AI Labs to repurpose existing drugs for new applications using the latter’s COVID-19 collaborative platform. In the same study carried out by Landsness, an insignificant change in turbidity (0.024–0.037 NTU) was observed when 200 fibres were intentionally cut (Landsness, 2001). In 1998, the USEPA published an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR) that added additional restrictions to the SWTR and addressed the issue of Cryptosporidium removal. When a position is posted internally only, any external candidate who may have inadvertently made it into the pool cannot be considered for selection. Only several studies discussed in the literature focused on turbidity removal by means of membrane processes, although it is proven that the use of those techniques enables the production of water with a turbidity below 1 NTU from water with an initial turbidity of 100 NTU and greater (Taylor & Wiesner, 2000). Coursework Structure: All postgraduate students are required to prepare themselves adequately for research and to … Thus, mere lime addition does not contribute to the (carbonate) buffer capacity of the water. Harvest methods can be compared head-to-head by measuring the decrease in NTU after clarification. Thus monitoring the reduction of common process-related impurities can provide added value. The suspended solids concentration is estimated by the clarity (turbidity) of the brine as measured by a nephelometer. Turbidity, a measure of the cloudiness of a fluid, is recorded in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). NTU has momentum, a strong reputation, and some very big plans – as both a university and an employer. A maximum solids-by-volume content of 0.05% is widely used across the industry as an acceptable measure of fluid cleanliness. Furthermore, cells of microorganisms could penetrate membrane pores with diameters much smaller than the dimensions of the cells themselves, owing to pressure deformation with the filtration of intracellular fluid, but tonus of the cellular membrane remains unchanged (Figure 15.11) (Bodzek, 2013; Bodzek & Konieczny, 2010; Sosnowski, Suchecka, & Piątkiewicz, 2004). Talent Recruitment@NTU; Career Events; Education & Branding Opportunities; Main Campus; 50 Nanyang Avenue; Singapore 639798; Tel: (65) 67911744 Usually, MF or UF is applied to decrease water turbidity to the level below 1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), i.e., the value that corresponds to regulations for drinking water. Comparing the dissolution of this combination of chemicals to the one described in Section (lime and CO2 dissolution) shows that attaining the same CT and Ca2 + concentration in both methods would result in lower product water alkalinity if CO2 is used, as can be concluded from Table 8.2. New setback for dance teams after NTU overrides Nanyang Auditorium booking for HOCC Yu-Lynn Tan December 19, 2020 January 5, 2021 HOCC 2021 will be held at the Lee Kong Chian Lecture Theatre on March 2 instead of the Nanyang Auditorium, as it coincides with another event organised by the school, said organisers Senator Durbin, Don’t Hurt Consumers By Making Credit Cards More Expensive. B setting the stage writing creative minor ntu for subsequent developments in art the last containing sixty six calo types lately made at least for the oceans. Internal Communication. We invite the application of researchers world-wide; the research atmosphere at NTU and Singapore is diverse, vibrant, and well-funded. Fig. Results were compared with those obtained using PEI, as well as PDADMAC (see the preceding). On the other hand, in this alternative, no unwanted counter ions are added to the water (Table 8.2). Figure 15.10 shows the rates of removal of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa for different UF membranes (Bodzek & Konieczny, 2010; Taylor & Wiesner, 2000). Standards used by operators can range from 10 NTU or higher. Ying Shi graduated from the Double Degree programme in Chinese Medicine and Biomedical Sciences by Nanyang Technological University and Beijing University of Chinese Medicine in 2014. Today, I’ve got this fantastic view of the University and the whole HE sector: a view that’s bigger and far wider than the one I started out with, when I first arrived. Air bubbles are the primary source of interference for water turbidities of less than 5 NTU, contributing to increased scattering of the incident light. Incident light strikes particles in the sample and is scattered towards a photodetector also located above the sample surface. This innovative “East Meets West” programme trains students in 21st century Biomedical Sciences and the principles and practice of Chinese Medicine (CM). On the other hand, bacteria (0.5–10 μm), cysts, and oocytes (3–15 μm) are larger, and thus they can be totally eliminated during MF (Bodzek & Konieczny, 2005; Taylor & Wiesner, 2000). This is, in most likelihood, an outcome of inadequate understanding of the inverse impact of soft water consumption by humans. and feeds (CHO-cell, E coli, blood, and rMilk) and does not significantly increase solution conductivity [64,65,73]. Most often the scattering of light at 90 degrees from the incident beam can be measured and is reported as Nephelometric Turbidity Units or NTUs. The main benefits of integrated MF/UF pretreatment technologies are (Buscha, Chub, Kolbe, Meng, & Li, 2009; Vial & Doussau, 2002): (1) the potential for higher RO flux and water recovery factor; (2) a low footprint with respect to the conventional coagulation/flocculation/DMF method; (3) improved membrane lifetime; and (4) a significant reduction in chemical dosing. Share Article. We cover the top three ways to promote a job posting for internal recruiting through your intranet which include: Job Opening Application, Home Page Feed, and Company Announcements. Glassdoor gives you an inside look at what it's like to work at NTU International, including salaries, reviews, office photos, and more. Job Description Post title: Internal Conference and Events Co- ordinator Post No: R1511 Organisation Unit: Events Date compiled: March 17 Grade: F Hours per week: 37 Weeks per year: 52 If fixed term, state duration: Permeant Immediate line manager: Internal Events Manager Designation of staff supervised by the postholder: None Job purpose: We seek a qualified civil engineer with vision, focus and leadership skills to lead the Department of Civil Engineering in the School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment to further develop our suite of excellent and well respected industry facing degrees, as well as to contribute more broadly to the leadership of the School. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Internal tides recorded on the ocean bottom off the coast of Southeast Taiwan. [36] studied clarification of relatively high-density (4–6 × 106 cells/mL) CHO cell feeds, with mAb titers of 0.4–5.0 g/L with benzylated poly(allylamine) (BPA) polymers. We're proud of how far we've come. Jobs in Singapore, Fresh Graduate Jobs for Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Graduate! all jobs. The most stringent method for solids content used by operators with highly sensitive formations is by using a particle counter, which is typically a laser particle counter. This website uses cookies to enhance your user experience. The fluid is filtered on predetermined sized filters and the absolute weight of solids is determined. However, it has been shown in practice that UF membranes are not always able to eliminate bacteria and viruses completely from water. ", “I really appreciate the leadership, support and autonomy I’ve been given here, and all the incredible opportunities to take on senior roles and responsibilities.”, “We’ve got some incredibly diverse characters – and I think that’s my favourite thing about NTU.”, “The job brings together all of my biggest passions – faith, social justice, and helping people to reach their potential. For comparison, Fig. The volume of feed enriched in cells (solid line, square symbols) is rapidly reduced as the volume of cell depleted feed (dashed line, round symbols) increases—the ratio of these two volumes varies linearly with time. 1,806 Nanyang Technological University Jobs available on Indeed.com. Table 8.2. Leslie, in Advances in Membrane Technologies for Water Treatment, 2015. Disinfection during conventional treatment (assuming all operational criteria and performance standards are met), must achieve 0.5-log inactivation of Giardia lamblia and 2.0-log inactivation of viruses. All content is posted anonymously by employees working at NTU International. … By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. 1 Analytics Practicum Module (Self-soucred Internship) 4. In addition, the approach may raise water turbidity to values higher than 5. Most cells and cell debris are negatively charged and amenable to flocculation by polycations or similar bridging substances including polyethleneimine, chitosan, and mixtures of multivalent salts [17,34,67]. Result of adding 8% (w/w) Breox 50A1000 polymer (Cognis Corp.) to 2 L of CHO cell feed at 40°C. NTU has helped me find my calling.”. James M. Van Alstine, ... Karol M. Łącki, in Biopharmaceutical Processing, 2018. However, CaCl2 is often a more expensive source of Ca2 + than lime (and quarry calcite) and the method involves the introduction of unwanted Cl− and Na+ ions to the water. As Head of the Department of Civil Engineering you will provide leadership to a committed group of academics. Table 11.3 identifies some cationic or responsive polymer reagents that can be used for cell and cell debris reduction, often by flocculation. Clarification time varies with reactor solution height, not volume [73]. Fig. www.ntu.ac.uk. Seawater pretreatment based on submerged MF/UF unit (Di Profio, Ji, Curcio, & Drioli, 2011). The polymer-rich phase excludes target proteins, of which > 95% can often be found in the cell-depleted phase. Turbidities of over 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) in controls could be reduced to 3 NTUs in 60 min at unit gravity. Each utility must perform a watershed sanitary survey at least every 5 years. 50 NTU) offered filter loadings of < 250 L/m2. A 1.8 dilution reduced target-containing phase turbidity to 47 NTU (similar to the case of pDADMAC noted previously) before further processing. 11 Core Subjects 2. Figure 13.9. What is an internal job posting and how does it benefit your organization? During harvest process development, a number of analytical tools may be valuable to assess clarification efficiency and step yield. Integration of standard MF/UF modules is also frequently applied. The bioreactor container was placed vertical after polymer addition and mixing. Suitable monochromatic light sources include light emitting diodes, lasers and mercury lamps. They are often used at low concentrations, for example, < 1% (w/w); however, when added to various solutions at higher concentrations (e.g., 8%) at T > Tc they rapidly form a polymer-poor (< 1%) phase floating on top of a denser polymer-rich phase [64,65,73] (Fig. Internal tides are baroclinic wave trains generated at tidal intervals by barotropic tidal currents when they flow over steep ocean-bottom topography [e.g., Wunsc....more. The voltage applied to the tungsten lamp determines the spectral output characteristics produced, making a stable power supply a necessity. The turbidity of the feed and filtrate is monitored and a noncompromised membrane should be able to reduce the turbidity by at least 90%. 11.6. We will post all INTERNAL job opportunities here. Consequently, the dissolution potential of lime decreases considerably, and more significantly, even at relatively low final alkalinity and Ca2 + concentrations (~ 30 mg/L as CaCO3 and ~ 10 mg/L, respectively) the resulting pH is excessively high (pH > 10.5), making this approach impractical as a PT of conventional RO permeates. NTU’s success hinges on our people, and their ability to shape, create and innovate – wherever they work, and whatever they’re doing. They have both hydrophillic (EO) and hydrophobic (PO) components. This post serves as a guide to all NTU students who want to use their NTU Mail on Microsoft Outlook. An acceptable thickness loss of 45 µm was noticed with 90 % Ra and Rz improvements. Some microorganisms (e.g., Cryptosporidium) are resistant to its action (Taylor & Wiesner, 2000). The required level of removal/inactivation must occur between the point where the raw water is not longer subject to surface water runoff and the point at which the first customer is served. For example, as tesla motors works toward its falling under a constant thrust of. Third, the surface integrity of the internal channels post-HCAF was investigated. The authors concluded that the methodology achieved residual levels of impurities in the Protein A eluate that might allow for streamlining of further purification steps [36]. Target-containing solution matched that of the original feed, as the added polymer stock solution volume was similar to that of the aggregated cell-containing liquid region. Measured values are indicated in nephelometric turbidity units, NTU. If a system meets the turbidity performance standard of 0.3 NTU in 95% of the samples taken each month (never to exceed 1 NTU) than the system gets credit for achieving the 2-log reduction in Cryptosporidium. The MSc in Analytics programme is an intensive one-year full-time or two-year part-timeprogramme by coursework, taught in three semesters. This suggests careful dosing may be required to achieve optimal results with different feeds. However, it works with a wide variety of targets (mAbs, Fabs, etc.) Withers [1] stated that further pH adjustment is often required when applying this alternative. With an increasing focus on harvest operations for both clarification and impurity reduction, selection of bioreactor pretreatment with flocculants and depth filter composition play a greater role in the reduction of HCP and DNA. Particle size analysis provides an additional tool that can be valuable for selecting depth filter grades or evaluating centrifuge operating conditions. In addition, the design of the modules often requires the raw stream to be sealed off from the permeate stream, which is not always appropriate. Turbidity is described as the opaqueness of a fluid due to the presence of suspended solids and is measured in terms of nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). NTU Statement on the Violence of January 6. As a substitute to actually measuring the inactivation of Giardia lamblia and viruses achieved at a treatment plant, the SWTR established the concept of CT to evaluate inactivation. The basic instrument incorporates a single light source and a photodetector to sense the scattered light. Nephelometric Turbidity Unit. 11.6). The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) was published in June 1989. Ad-hoc Seminar… As the desalination industry gains long-term experience with membrane pretreatment systems, MF and UF are expected to become the standard for the next generation of BWRO and SWRO plants (operational scheme in Figure 13.9) (Voutchkov, 2010). As with the NTU value, there is no measurement of particle size or distribution. Various methods can be applied to water disinfection, each of which has some advantages and disadvantages. MerckMillipore has developed its possible use with Clarisolve depth filters, and their studies suggest 1 ppm residual polymer is not a QC concern. Turbidity is generally used by most operators. “There’s variety, and there’s challenge. The main advantages of applying direct chemicals dosage are simplicity, the relatively low capital cost, and required footprint and the flexibility with regard to product water quality, i.e., the wide range of water qualities that can be attained. In return, we provide a great range of benefits and career development opportunities. The neutral charge nature of the polymers means that at T < Tc they tend to flow through chromatography columns. This is a coarse measurement, but quick and easy to obtain at the wellsite. Register now, search and apply for your dream jobs and careers. UF, ultrafiltration. The study of application of a UF Aquasource membrane (France) revealed that from waters of different turbidity ranging from 0.1 to 11.5–24.8 NTU, drinking water of a turbidity of 0.03–0.04 NTU could be obtained (Taylor & Wiesner, 2000). When flocculation was performed at pH 6–7, using 0.1%–0.4% polymer and 10–40 mM phosphate, the treated feed (of approx. MF is a low energy-consuming membrane unit commonly used to remove suspended solids, reduce the chemical oxygen demand below 25 mg/L, and achieve an SDI less than 5. All our civil engineering courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level are accredited on behalf of the Engineering Council by the Joint Board of Moderators representing the following professional bodies – ICE, IStructE, CIHT and IHE with the undergraduate courses also being accredited by the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveying. Turbidity meters work by shining a light (laser) through a fluid sample and observing the amount of scattering or reflection. The 1 ppm level can be quantitated using surface plasmon resonance [2]. Kang et al. The extent of scattering when light is passed through an intermediate process stream is related to the level of suspended particulates in the sample. 11.7. When they phase separate, the resulting phase droplet structures offer L-L interfaces—which can localize cells, organelles, and other colloids by interfacial tension. EOPO polymers possess the normal ability of EO polymers such as PEG to enhance flocculation (see the preceding). Sand filters remove 99–99.9% of bacteriophages, whereas commercial water treatment devices based on ultraviolet (UV) and ozonation do not guarantee the removal of all pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, it was demonstrated that the shape of microorganisms could be a key factor determining the efficiency of bacteria removal via a membrane. The SWTR requires all utilities utilizing a surface water supply or a ground water supply under the influence of a surface water supply, to provide adequate disinfection and under most conditions, to provide filtration. The chemicals may be either in a slurry form (usually hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2, as discussed in Sections and, dissolved in solution (e.g., calcium salts, as detailed for example in Section, or in a condensed, liquid form (CO2(l)) that transforms into CO2(g) and dissolves in the water (as discussed in Sections and The practical chemical combinations typically dosed to desalinated water and the associate changes in water quality are listed in Sections– Five NTUs are just noticeable by the eye, while 50–100 NTUs are often used as an indication of brine clarity. UF is a versatile separation process able to retain suspended solids, bacteria, macromolecules, and colloids; turbidity is also significantly decreased (less than 0.4 NTU) and SDI is below 2 in the permeate stream. The partially clarified feed solution was readily depth filtered and sterile filtered before being applied to a Protein A affinity chromatography step, which showed normal target recovery and concentration, as well as reduction in HCP, DNA, and other contaminants. Internal lenses and apertures focus the light onto the sample, while the photodetector is set at 90 degrees to the direction of the incident light to monitor scattered light. Living in Nottingham Nottingham benefits from a strong cultural sense of identity, a diverse and welcoming community, and has … Solids contamination can cause substantial formation damage to a producing zone. They often exhibit thermal responsiveness and critical solution temperatures (Tc′s), whereby if the temperature increases above Tc, the polymers self-associate (i.e., become more hydrophobic). John P. Pieracci, ... Jorg Thommes, in Biopharmaceutical Processing, 2018. More stringent NTU values are used for some completion and intervention fluids. Sometimes, when turbidity is caused by colloidal fraction, membrane filtration is preceded by coagulation to obtain flocks of a greater size (Bodzek & Konieczny, 2005).

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